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ⓘ Frene Ginwala



                                     

ⓘ Frene Ginwala

U-Frene Noshir Ginwala ungumlobi kanye nosopolitiki waseNingizimu Afrika owayenguSomlomo wePhalamende kazwelonke yaseNingizimu Afrika ukusukela ngo-1994 ukuya ku-2004. U-Ginwala unguMndiya waseNingizimu Afrika womphakathini waseParsi-Indian waseNtshonalanga ne-Indiya. Wafunda i-DPhil e- Linacre College, e-Oxford.

UGinwala waqokwa njengeshansela lokuqala lase-University of KwaZulu-Natali ngo-Ephreli 2005. Ungomunye wabesimame abangamaShansela amane besimame eNyuvesi eNingizimu Afrika.

                                     

1. Umlando wakhe ibhayografi

UGinwala ubhale izincwadi eziningi ezibhekene nemikhakha ehlukahlukene yomzabalazo wokulwa nenqubo engenabulungisa. Ngenxa yemizamo yakhe, uye wahlonishwa ngamazwe omhlaba kanye nezikhungo zendawo nohulumeni.

Esebenzisa ukungaziwa kwakhe, wadlala indima enkulu ekusungulweni kwemizila yokuphepha yomshoshaphansi yabaholi be- ANC kanye nama-cadre e- ANC esikhathini esilandela ukubulawa kwabantu abaningi eSharpeville kanye nangesikhathi sokufakwa komthetho wesimo esibucayi i-State of Emergency SOE ngo-1960. Laba baholi babebandakanya iPhini likaMengameli we-ANC u-Oliver Tambo noYusuf Dadoo, abaholi ababili bamaqembu enkululeko. Wabuye wahlela izindlu eziphephile kulabo ababezosala ngaphakathi ezweni. UGinwala waphinde washayela nokuhambisa abaholi beNIC Natal Indian Congress uMonty Naicker noJN Singh, ababesebenza ngomshoshaphansi ngemuva kokuzifihla emaphoyiseni. Umyalezo wabo kwakuwuuhamba-hamba ezweni nesifundazwe futhi ukufunana nemali kubanikeli bemfihlo ukuze kusekelwe imindeni eyayisele budedengu ngemuva kuboshwa kwabandli bemindeni ngaphansi komthetho we-SOE owabekwa ezweni ngumbuso wobandlululo izinyanga ezinhlanu.

Ekugcineni kwadingeka ahambe eNingizimu Afrika ngasekupheleni kuka-1960 kanti futhi enoTambo, kanye noDadoo, baqala ihhovisi le-ANC eDar es Salaam, eTanganyika eyayisengaphansi kombuso wobukoloni waseBrithani ukufikela ngomhla ka 9 Disemba 1961. Ukuchithwa kombuso eZanzibar ngo-1963 kwavula indlela yokwakhiwa kweribhaphuliki ehlangene ye-United Republic of Tanzania ngo-1964. Nangaphandle kwe-ANC, wasebenza nasemikhakheni ehlukile. Wayenikeza izinkulumo zokufundisa kubaqeqeshwa bamanxusa e-Oxford University, wafunda, wabhala amaphephandaba amasha e-UK nakwezinye izindawo ezibandakanya ne-BBC. U-Frene Ginwala waba nendima enkulu ekusungulweni kwesistimu yokuxhumana kwi-Republic entsha yaseTanzania naseZanzibar. Ngokucelwa nguMongameli uJulius Nyerere, waba ngumhleli wephephandaba le-English Daily Standard, ne-Sunday News. Ngesikhathi sonke esekudingisweni wabuyela eNingizimu Afrika ngonyaka ka-1991 wahambela amazwe omhlaba echaza ngobubi bombuso wobandlululo kanye nemizabalazo yokulwa nawo.

U-Ginwala uneziqu zemfundo ezivela emanyuvesi amaningi e-Afrika nakumazwe aphesheya. Ungummmeli emthethweni; isazi-mlando; usosayensi wezepolitiki, kanti futhi une-doctorate yefilosofi yase-Oxford University.

Kukhetho lukazwelonke lwentando yeningi idimokhrasi lwango 1994 eNingizimu Afrika, uFrene Ginwala wakhethwa ukuya ePhalamende. Waqokwa yi-caucus ye-ANC futhi wakhethwa yiPhalamende njengowesifazane wokuqala ukuba nguSomlomo weNdlu. Waba kulesi sikhundla ukusukela ngo-1994 kwaze kwaba ngu-2004. Ngemuva kokuthatha umhlalaphansi njengosomlomo, waqhubeka ukusebenza ezinhlanganweni ezmbalwa zamazwe omhlaba, ezibandakanya izinhlangano ezisebenza ngaphansi kwe-UN, njengokuba yi-Truestee yeNelson Mandela Foundation kanye neShansela yeNyuvesi yaKwaZulu Natali.

UMongameli uThabo Mbeki waqoka uGinwala ngo-30 kuSeptemba 2007 ukuqhuba uphenyo kuMqondisi kaZwelonke wezoShushiso lukazwelonke uVusi Pikoli. ukubona ukufaneleka kwakhe ukuba kulesi sikhundla. Wavumelana noPikoli kodwa wagxeka ukuxhumana okungekuhle phakathi kweminyango kahulumeni. Waphinde wagxeka uMqondisi Jikelele woMnyango Wezobulungiswa Nokuthuthukiswa Komthethosisekelo, uGqwetha Menzi Simelane, ubufakazi bakhe obabuphikisana, futhi bungahambelani nomthetho.

Kanti futhi waba namagama okugxeka kakhulu uJacob Zuma ngokuqoka kwakhe uSimelane njengoMqondisi Kazwelonke Wezoshushiso kuzwelonke.

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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