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ⓘ Joe Slovo




                                               

Ruth First

URuth First wayeyisishoshovu saseNingizimu Afrika esasilwa nobandlululo nesazi saseGoli, eNingizimu Afrika. Ubeyindodakazi ka Jewwish Immigrants Julius no Matilda First.uJulius ubeyi furniture manufacture wazalwa eLavitvia bese wazohlala eNingizimu Afrika ngonyaka ka1906 eneminyaka eyishumi umatilda yena weza eNingizimu Afrika esukabeLithuania eseneminyaka yesine.bobabili bebayingxenye yeCommunist Party South Africa ngonyaa 1921.uRuth ubenomfowabo abambiza ngoronald.bakhule bobabili ndawonye.uRuth wenza ibanga leshumi nabili eJeppe high School lapho kufunda amantombazane wondwa. Wathi eqed ...

Joe Slovo
                                     

ⓘ Joe Slovo

UJoe Slovo wayengusopolitiki waseNingizimu Afrika, futhi ephikisana nohlelo lobandlululo. UMarxist-Leninist, wayengumholi wesikhathi eside futhi eyisishoshovu kwiSouth African Communist Party, ilungu eliphambili le- African National Congress, nomkhuzi wephiko le-ANC lezempi uMkhonto we Sizwe.

Isakhamuzi saseNingizimu Afrika esiqhamuka emndenini wamaJuda-Lithuanian, iSlovo besiyisiphathimandla kwiCongress of Nations People of June ngoNhlangulani 1955 eyasungula i- Charter Freedom. Waboshwa izinyanga eziyisithupha ngonyaka ka-1960, futhi wavela njengomholi waseMkhonto we Sizwe ngonyaka olandelayo. Wahlala ekudingisweni kusuka ngonyaka ka-1963 kuya ku-1990, enza imisebenzi yokulwa nobandlululo e-United Kingdom, Angola, Mozambique naseZambia. Ngo-1990 wabuyela eNingizimu Afrika, wabamba iqhaza ezingxoxweni ezaphela nobandlululo. Waziwa ngokuphakamisa "imigatshana yelanga" ehlanganisa iminyaka engu-5 kulandela ukhetho lwentando yeningi, okubandakanya iziqinisekiso nokuvuma kuzo zonke izinhlangothi, kanye nokuma okungahlangene nobandlululo. Ngemuva kokhetho lwango-1994, waba nguNgqongqoshe Wezindlu kuhulumeni kaNelson Mandela. Ushonile umdlavuza ngo-1995.

                                     

1. Impilo

USlovo wazalelwa e- Obeliai, eLithuania, emndenini wamaJuda owathuthela e- Union of South Africa lapho eneminyaka eyisishiyagalombili. Uyise ubesebenza njengomshayeli weloli eGoli. Yize umndeni wakhe wawusenkolweni, waba ngumuntu ongakholelwa kuNkulunkulu owagcina ehlonipha" izici ezinhle zesiko lamaJuda”. USlovo wayeka isikole ngo-1941 futhi wathola umsebenzi wokuba umabhalane wokuhambisa izincwadi. Ujoyine iNational Union of Distributive Workers futhi, njengomphathi wezitolo, wabamba iqhaza ekuhleleni isiteleka.

ISlovo yajoyina iqembu laseNingizimu Afrika lamaKhomanisi ngonyaka ngo1942. Eshukunyiswe izimpi zeRed Army ngokulwa namaNazi e- Eastern Front of War II, uSlovo wazinikelwa ukuthi alwe empini. Wasebenza njengoMsayineli emisebenzini yokulwa kwamasosha aseNingizimu Afrika eNyakatho Afrika nase-Italy, kwathi lapho ebuyela eNingizimu Afrika wajoyina i- Springbok Legion, inhlangano yezizwe ezahlukahlukene eyayisebenza ngokuqinile.

Phakathi kuka-1946 no-1950 waphothula iziqu zobudokotela eWits University futhi eyisishoshovu sabafundi. Ubesekilasini elifanayo noNelson Mandela noHarry Schwarz. Ngo-1949 washada noRuth First, esinye isishoshovu esidumile sokulwa nobandlululo kanye nendodakazi yomgcinimafa weSACP uJulius Okokuqala. Babenamadodakazi amathathu, uShawn, uGillian noRobyn. URuth Okokuqala wabulawa ngonyaka ka-1982 eMaputo, ngokuyalelwa kukaCraig Williamson, owayeyiphoyisa emaphoyiseni ezokuphepha.

Ngo-1950, i-SACP yavalwa futhi bobabili abokuqala kanye nabakwaSlovo bafakwa ohlwini njengamakhomanisi ngaphansi koMthetho Wokuqinisa Ubukhomanisi futhi babungeke bacashunwe noma babe khona emibuthanweni yomphakathi eNingizimu Afrika. Waphinde waba ummemezeli e- South African Congress of Democrats sizana-ANC njengengxenye Congress Alliance futhi uyisihambeli Inhlaba ngo1955 ICongress of the People ihlelwe yi-ANC ne-Indian, amaKhaladi namaNdiya bayingxenye yabasebenzi nezinhlangano omhlophe eKliptown eduze NeGoli, esidale i- Freedom Charter. Waboshwa futhi waboshwa izinyanga ezimbili ngesikhathi seTraason Trial yango -1956. Amacala abhekene nawo alahlwa ngonyaka we-1958. Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi waboshwa izinyanga eziyisithupha ngesikhathi uMbuso Wezimo Eziphuthumayo umenyezelwe ngemuva kokubulawa kwabantu eSharpeville ngo-1960.

Ngo-1961, uSlovo no-Abongz Mbede bavela babaholi ababili baseMkhonto thina uSizwe MK, ophiko lwamasosha kaKhongolose, babumba umfelandawonye phakathi kwe-ANC ne-SACP. Ngo-1963 waya ekudingisweni wayohlala eBrithani, Angola, Mozambique naseZambia. Esikhundleni sakhe sokuba yinduna yabasebenzi bakwaMK wabala ngemisebenzi yayo, njengokuqhuma kwamabhomu ngo-1983 Church Street. Ngo-1982, unkosikazi weSlovo, uRuth First wabulawa eMaputo, eMozambiki, lapho lo mbhangqwana uhlala khona udingisiwe. Ngo-1984, iSlovo, eyilungu le-ANC ne-SACP, baphoqeleka ukuba bashiye iMozambiki ngokuya ngeNkomati Accord phakathi kweMarxist Peoples Republic of Mozambique kanye nobandlululo lwaseNingizimu Afrika. Ngo-1984, wakhethwa njengoNobhala Jikelele weSACP eLusaka, eZambia, kwathi ngo-1985, waba yilungu lokuqala elimhlophe esigungwini esiphezulu se-ANC kuzwelonke.

USlovo ubengumbhali wokuhola phambili ku-SACP naku-ANC. Ngeminyaka yama-1970 wabhala inselelo enethonya ethi "South Africa: No Middle Road", eyayiphikisana nokuthi uhulumeni wobandlululo ngehluleke ukuzuza uzinzo, aqoke izingxenye ezibalulekile zesigaba esiphakathi kodwa esimnyama esimaphakathi, noma asenze ngentando yeningi. yayiphakathi kokugumbuqelwa kobandlululo okusobala, kugxile kuMK, noma ukucindezelwa okukhulu kakhulu.

Ngaleso sikhathi umbono we-SACP noma ongokwesiko nowezinyathelo ezimbili wokushintshwa kwezinguquko eNingizimu Afrika - "inguquko kazwelonke yentando yeningi" kuqala, ubusoshiyali ngemuva kwesikhathi - babubusa enhlanganweni eyayiholwa yi-ANC. ISlovos 1988 "iSouth African Working Class kanye neNational Democratic Revolution" bavikele umbono osesiteji ezimbili, begcizelela ukuthi "inguquko kazwelonke yentando yeningi" "izosebenzisa izinyathelo zomnotho ezedlula kakhulu umbuso wentando yeningi" ngakho-ke "bakhe uhlaka oluvumayo lwentuthuko. ushintsho lwezenhlalo yabantu kepha ngeke, ngokwazo, zidale, noma ziholele, kubusoshiyali ".

Ngo-1989, wabhala ukuthi "Ngabe I-Socialism Ihlulekile?" evume ubuthakathaka benhlangano yezenhlalo kanye nokweqisa kweStalinism, kuyilapho ngasikhathi sinye izama ngakwesobunxele ukuziqhelelanisa nobusoshiyali. USlovo waphikelela ekutheni "abe nokuzethemba okufaneleko ngekusasa lobusoshiyali kanye nokuphakama kwayo kokuziphatha", futhi ekhomba "ukwehluleka kongxowankulu", yize manje enqaba imodeli yombuso weqembu elilodwa.

Ngo-1990, wabuyela ezweni ukuzobamba iqhaza ezingxoxweni zokuqala "zezingxoxo ngezinkulumo" phakathi kukahulumeni ne-ANC. Egula, wema phansi njengonobhala jikelele we-SACP ngonyaka ka 1991 futhi wanikeza isikhundla sokuba ngusihlalo we-SACP. ISlovo yathathelwa indawo nguChris Hani, owabulawa ngemuva kweminyaka emibili ngumnqobi wamalungelo amhlophe. ISlovo ibiyisidalwa eside idemoni emphakathini wabamhlophe baseNingizimu Afrika, ivezwe kabi njengesikoloni se- KGB noma i-ejenti eyimfihlo yaseRussia, futhi yaheha isithangami sabezindaba ngemuva kokubuya kwayo.

Ngo-1992, iSlovo yathola omkhulu umehluko ezingxoxweni zokuqeda ubandlululo eNingizimu Afrika ngokwethula "imigatshana yelanga" eyakhiwa ubuholi be-ANC / SACP: uhulumeni wobumbano iminyaka emihlanu kulandela ukhetho lwentando yeningi, uqinisekisa izisebenzi zikahulumeni, kubandakanya nezasemakhaya namabutho ahlomile, nenqubo yokuxolelwa. Lokhu kuhloselwe ukususa ekuhlanganiseni kwephiko lasesandleni sokudla kanye nokwenza amandla. Kodwa-ke, iSlovo yenqabile ngokuqondile noma ikuphi ukuyekethisa ekubuseni kweningi labantu, futhi noma yisiphi isivumelwano esithi "ngokomthethosisekelo sivimbele unomphela" uhulumeni omusha "ukuthi angenelele ngempumelelo ukuze aqhubekisele phambili inqubo yokulungisa ukungalingani okuqoqiwe kwezinhlanga kuyo yonke imikhakha yempilo".

Ngemuva kokhetho lwango-1994, uSlovo waba nguNgqongqoshe Wezindlu kuhulumeni kaNelson Mandela, waze washona ngo-1995 ngenxa yomdlavuza. Umngcwabo wakhe ubuhanjelwe yiwo wonke umthetho ophakeme we-ANC, futhi yizikhulu eziningi eziphakeme ezweni, ezibandakanya bobabili uNelson Mandela noThabo Mbeki, futhi wangcwatshwa e- Avalon Cemetery, eSoweto, engazwakali, ngomuntu waseNingizimu Afrika omhlophe. Abantu abangama-50 000, iningi labansundu, bebehambele umcimbi.

                                     

1.1. Impilo Izinkokhiso zomphakathi ezifanayo

Ngo-2004 iSlovo yavotelwa ngama-47 kumaTop 100 Great South Africa. Zasemijondolo ezakhiwe emhlabeni nomsebenzi kokubili eThekwini futhi Cape Town zethiwa eJoe Slovo by abasunguli yabo. IHarrow Road eseGoli kanye neStreet Street eDurban Central baqanjwe kabusha ngokuthi yiJoe Slovo Drive nakuJoe Slovo Street ngokulandelana. Isakhiwo esisanda kwakhiwa seRever Residence eRhode University eGrahamstown, South Africa, siqanjwe ngegama elithi "Joe Slovo" ukuhlonipha lo mlisa. ICongress of South African Trade Unions, umfelandawonye wezinyunyana omkhulu kunayo yonke eNingizimu Afrika, kanye nobumbano lwe-ANC ne-SACP, isiza ekuhleleni ingqungquthela yonyaka yeJoe Slovo Memorial futhi imvamisa ikhiphe isitatimende ngosuku lokuzalwa kwakhe. ISlovo yayihlonishwa kakhulu emazweni aseningizimu ne-Afrika, ihola umagazini waseZimbabwe, iNingizimu Afrika Yezepolitiki Nezomnotho njalo ngenyanga iphethe udaba olukhethekile ngokufa kwakhe, futhi ichaza iSlovo endaweni yokugcotshwa njenge "qhawe lomzabalazo wenkululeko "kanye" nelizwe lase-Afrika "eligxile ngokuphelele emzabalazweni inkululeko emnyama.

                                     

1.2. Impilo I-cinema nezomculo

UJoe Slovo ubonakala njengomlingisi emafilimini amabili uShawn Slovo abhale ngawo i-screenplay. Ku-movie eyawina umklomelo we-1988 i- A World Mbali, uboniswa "Gus Roth" odlalwa nguJeroben Krabbé. Udlalelwa nguMalcolm Purkey kwifilimu ka-2006 ethi Catch a Fire. Ingoma eyayimdumisa yabhalwa umlobi wengoma waseScotland uDavid Heavenor futhi yavela ngonyaka ka-1993 kwi-albhamu ethi Private The Night izivakashi.

                                     

2. Izixhumanisi ezingaphandle

  • "Izinkulumo Nemibhalo kaJoe Slovo", ephethwe yi-SACP
  • UJoe Slovo - umdwebo wezithombe ekhasini lokuqala le-ANC
  • "Ukubuya kuka-Old Marxist, Ngethemba NgeNingizimu Afrika" - isihloko sikaChris Hedges, New York Times, 17 Okthoba 1990
  • UJoe Slovo Archive ku-marxists.org
  • "UJoe Slovo: Ungu-mensch - u-eulogy ngumngane uLinzi Manicom
                                     
  • kanye ne Economic histroy. Wayefunda noNelson Mandela, Eduardo Mandlana, Joe Slovo TN Singh and Ismail. Ngonyaka 1974 waqala wasebenza ukuba eJohannesburg
  • kokususwa kwesinqabelo se - ANC ngonyaka we - 1990, wathatha izintambo kuJo Slovo njengenhloko yeSouth African Communist Party mhla ziyi - 8 kuZibandlela 1991