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ⓘ IRiphabhuliki yaseNingizimu Afrika




IRiphabhuliki yaseNingizimu Afrika
                                     

ⓘ IRiphabhuliki yaseNingizimu Afrika

iNingizimu Afrika iyizwe elisezansi ezwenikazi lase-Afrika, yaziwa ngokusemthethweni ngokuthi iRiphabhuliki yaseNingizimu Afrika. Ihlanganiswa amakhilomitha ayizi-2.798 agudle usebe lolwandle okuyi iNdiyeni kanye ne-Atlanthiki. Amazwe angomakhelwane ahlanganisa iNamibhiya, iBotswana, iZimbabwe, Mozambiki kanye neSwazi; iLesotho iyizwe elincane elizungezwe iNingizimu Afrika. Umongameli waseNingizimu Afrika nguMnz. Matamela Cyril Ramaphosa.

uMzansi unesikhundla weholo "phakathi-phezulu" ngokwaBhange Womhlaba, noButswana, noGaboni noMorishisi). Unomnotho omkhulu eAfrika, amashumi amabili nesishiyagalombili eMhlaba. Ucezu lwesine wenani labantu abasebenzi. Banemali okuncane kuna US $1.25 kosuku.

INingizimu Afrika yizwe elisekugcineni kweNingizimu yezwekazi le-Afrika. Yona iNingizimu Afrika izungezwe ulwandle phecelezi Indian Ocean kanye ne-Atlantic Ocean. Inani labantu baseNingizimu Afrika yizigidi ezingamashumi amahlanu nambili, ukuya ngombiko wakamuva wokubalwa kwabantu i-Census. Iningizimu Afrika ingelinye ilizwe elinothe kakhulu ezwekazini lase-Afrika ngoba linamagugu anjiwayo afana ne-golide, ikhromu, insimbi, platinamu, ithusi, idayimani, i-yuraniyamu namanye amagugu. Umnotho weNingizimu Afrika uncike ekuhwebelaneni namanye amazwe angaphandle afana noShayina, Indiya, Fulansi, iMelika, Mozambigi, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Botswana namanye amazwe angaphandle kwe-Afrika. Ngokomlando, INingizimu Afrika eminyakeni engaphezu kwengamashumi amane yayiphethwe wumbuso wengcinndezelo Apartheid. Kanti le-Apartheid yasungulwa umongameli osewadlula wengcindezelo uHendrik Verwoerd, ngeminyaka yo 1960. Miningi nje imithetho eyasayindwa ukucindezela ezinye izinhlanga ezinjengabantu abamnyama, abantu base-Eshiya, amakhaladi nezinye izinhlanga ezazingemhlophe. Zikhona izingqalabutho noma izishoshovu ezifana noLangalibalele Dube, Walter Rabusana, Thomas Mapikela, Tengo Jabavu, Pixley ka-Isaka Seme, abalwa nencindezelo kusukela ngeminyaka yo-1902 kuze kufike lesi sikhathi sanamhlanje. Lezingqalabutho yizo ezasungula umbutho wezepolitiki owalwela amalungelo abantu ababecindezelwe, lelo qembu lezombusazwe kwaba-Ukhongolose ANC.

Zikhona izinhlangano zepolitiki ezahlanganyela nokhongolose ezifana ne-SACP amakomanisi, i-PAC kanye nezinye ezifana no-BCM. Kwahamba kanjalo eNingizimu Afrika kwaze kwaboshwa osopolitiki ngaleso sikhathi sengcindezelo abafana no Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Govan Mbeki, Raymond Mhlaba, Robert Sobukwe, Andrew Mlangeni, Dennis Goldberg, Kasrils nabanye. Kanti abanye baya ekudingisweni abafana no-Oliver Tambo, Thabo Mbeki, Chris Hani, Duma Nokwe, Moses Kotane. Kwaze kwafika lapho umbuso wengcindezelo wehluleka khona uthathwa ngabamnyama. Ngemva konyaka ka 1994, kwangena intando yeningi democracy, lapho umongameli wokuqala wentando yeningi kwaba nguNelson Mandela owaboshwa iminyaka ewu-27 ejele. Ngemva kwalokho iNingizimu Afrika yaqala ukuvula uhwebo ihwebelana namanye amazwe omhlaba. Iningizimu Afrika yabumba umthethosisekelo oqukethe intando yeningi amalungelo wobuntu, nobulungiswa obungakhethi ibala. Kanti zonke izinhlanga zaqala ukuba nelungelo lokuvota ngokukhululeka. Kanti iNingizimu Afrika inezilimi eziyishumi nanye ezisemthethweni, zona yisiNgisi, isiZulu, isiNdebele, isiSwati, isiXhosa, isiPedi, isiSotho, isiTswana, isiBhunu, isiVenda kanye nesiTsonga, kanti zikhona ezinye izilimi ezikhulunyiswa ukungena kuloluhlu, njengolimi lwezimpawu kanye nolimi lwaBathwa Khoyisani. Umbuso weNningizimu Afrika uphethwe yizingxenye ezintathu zombuso, zona yiphalamende Parliament, ngumbuso Government / executive kanye nobulungiswa Judiciary. Kanti zonke izinhlangano zepolitiki zivumelekile ukungenela amavoti okhetho lomasipala lwezifundazwe kanye nolukazwelonke. Uhulumeni ngalesi sikhathi uphethwe inhlangano kakhongolose ANC, ngemva kwalokho bese kulandele ezinye izinhlangano eziphikisayo ezifana no-DA, PAC, EFF, Cope, IFP, NFP, ACDP, MF, nezinye izinhlangano.

Umongameli owalandela uNelson Mandela nguThabo Mbheki ngnyaka ka 1996, bese ngonyaka ka 2009 kwangena uJacob Zuma, kuze kube manje. Okulandela umthethosisekelo, liculo lesizwe elaziwa njengoNkosi sikelela i-Afrika. Le ngoma yacanjwa yingqalabutho lomculo u-Enoch Sontonga, kanti yona lengoma iqukethe izilimi ezine isiXhosa, isibhunu, isiNgisi kanye nesiSotho. Iningizimu Afrika iyizwe elihle elinezinhlanga ezahlukahlukene, njengokusho komthethosisekelo ugunyaza ukuthi izilimi zonke zikhulunywe ngokukhululeka noma wonke umuntu kungakhathalekile ukuthi uyinhlanga yiphi yomuntu. Nazi izinhlanga zabantu esinazo: Kunohlanga lwabantu abamnyama abampisholo, lapha kuqukethwe amaNguni: kanti futhi sinohlanga lwabesuthu:amaPedi, amaShweshwe noma abeSuthu, amaTswana, abaTlokwa), kanti futhi sinamaTsonga, amaVenda. Sinohlanga lwabantu abamhlophe, izinhlanga zabantu ezivela e-Eshiya njengeNdiya India, eShayina China nezinye izinhlanga ezihambelana nazo. Sinohlanga lwabantu bebala amakhaladi, loluhlanga lwabakhona ngenxa yokuhlangana nokungenelana kwezinhlanga ezahlukene zabantu, isibonelo lapho kuhlangana abantu abamnyama nabamhlophe, abathwa noma amakhoyisani nabamhlophe. Lolu hlanga lwabantu luvame ukutholakala kakhulu enTshonalanga-Kapa, Nyakatho-Kapa, KwaZulu-Natali, Bloemfontein nakwezinye izifundazwe. Loluhlanga lwabantu kuyilo kanye elaba negalelo ekusungulweni kolimi lwesiBhunu Afrikaans. Siphinde sibe nohlanga lwaBathwa: AmaKhoyisani, amaSani, amarhirikwa, amaXu, amaKhwe amaNama. Kanti ngokomlando osomlando bathi amaKhoyisani yibo bantu bokuqala abafika e-Afrika eseNingizimu, ngaphambi kokuba kufike abantu. Lokhu kufakazelwa yimidwebo egcwele ematsheni ngaseNyakatho-Kapa naseNtshonalanga-Kapa. Kanti futhi kufakazelwa ngabamhlophe abafika kokuqala eNingizimu Afrika o-Jan Van Riebeck phela ngeminyaka yo 1652. Loluhlanga lwabantu lwalugcwele ngasogwini lwaseNtshonalanga Kapa. Zonke lezinhlanga zabantu zinamasiko azo lapho ziphila khona.